Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination

Know more. Load More. The brief facts leading to filing of this rev Therefore, the revision petitioners have filed I. The expert has given his opinion on the documents without any opinion as to the age of the ink used in the documents Exs. As observed by the Apex Court, in the above


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Relations have warmed in recent years and cooperation has strengthened across a range of economic and political areas. Violent clashes between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims follow, and as many as a million die in bloodshed amidst the forced migration of up to twenty million people. Truman on a multi-week tour tour of the United States. This sets the tone for U. President Dwight Eisenhower is the first serving U. Nine American universities and the U. Under the Kanpur Indo-American Program [PDF], American faculty members develop academic programs and research laboratories at the new university over a decade.

The partnership is one of many examples of higher education collaboration between the two countries. War breaks out between India and China over a disputed frontier. Kennedy to request support from the United States. Washington supports India in the conflict, recognizing the McMahon line as the border, and provides air assistance and arms. Until the Inda-Pakistan War, strategic and military ties between Washington and Delhi remain close. Norman Borlaug travels to India to begin testing high-yield wheat varieties.

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Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.

The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.

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All the drawing materials we use have a history, and some of them go back much earlier than we can imagine. This is the case for India ink, known in some countries as “China ink,” as it has been used in the countries in disciplines ranging from tattooing to comics, and whose existence is deeply linked to the history of the country. Discover everything you always wanted to know about India ink in the video below: its origins, the reasons for its importance both in your country and in the rest of the world, and its unexpected connection to everything from the political to the economic, and, finally, the artistic.

India ink is one of the oldest drawing materials in existence. Its origins are directly linked to the emergence of the Chinese alphabet. But where did the first manifestations of the ideograms we associate with the Asian country come from?

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The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.

If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings. Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time.

Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines. Forensic Paper Examination. Gerald M. LaPorte, M.

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the Supreme Court of India and some of the International Cases. Handwriting experts were examined in which neither of the Handwriting experts of shares were moved in the back date by Mr. K S Sidhu the Managing Director of the court has ordered for Forensic opinion regarding the age of the writings, ink and.

These provisions are exceptional in nature to the general rule that evidence is to be given of the facts only which are within the knowledge of a witness. Who is an expert? The definition of an expert may be referred from the provision of Sec. For example, medical officer, chemical analyst, explosive expert, ballistic expert, fingerprint expert etc. According to Sec. But practically there are some more subjects or fields on which court may seek opinion an expert.

An expert witness is one who has devoted time and study to a special branch of learning and thus he is specially skilled on those points on which he is asked to state his opinion. His evidence on such points is admissible to enable the court to come to a satisfactory conclusion. State of A. It is a rule of procedure that expert evidence must be corroborated either by clear direct evidence or by circumstantial evidence.

Gopal Reddy v. A doctor acquires special knowledge of medicine and surgery and as such he is an expert. When there is a conflict between the medical evidence and ocular evidence, oral evidence of an eye witness has to get primacy as medical evidence is basically opinionative. Where the direct evidence is not supported by the expert evidence, the evidence is wanting in the most material part of the prosecution case and therefore, it would be difficult to convict the accused on the basis of such evidence.

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Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time.

An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes. Many reports has been given in this regard by Anil Gupta Forensic Services. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of signature on a typed letter dt. Earlier to know the age of the signature, age of document was determined by ink, paper, printing and subject matter examination.

45 to Sec under Chapter-II of the Indian Evidence Act provide relevancy of opinion Expert’s Opinion and its admissibility & relevancy: An Analysis in view of Law of Evidence 4) The specimen seal shall be on sealing wax and not in the ink. to pieces or remove portions for the purpose of the said examination. Date.

Know more. Load More. The brief facts leading to filing of Therefore, the revision petitioners have filed I. The expert has given his opinion on the documents without any opinion as to the age of the ink used in the documents Exs. As observed by the Apex Court, in the above It is observed that when the dispute as to the tampering with antedate and determination It also referred the expression of Kambala supra where observed mere determination of age of ink , even there exists any facility for that purpose; cannot, by it If point No.

Thus, from the above, it is clear that there is an organization called Nutron Activation Analysis In a given case, the ink , or for that matter, the pen, may have He also submits that determination of age of ink and the docum Deepak Kaushal, learned counsel for the respondent-plaintiff submits that the pleading qua age of the ink and the documents is conspicuously wanting and, therefore, rightly so, the

Ink Experts

We have gone through your all photographs, comparisons, detection job and other hard work for identifying the real culprit is highly appreciable”. Toggle navigation. With reference to the above.

With time, it tends to disperse and spread on the paper if its ink or pencil. evidence you can trace the date fairly accurately as to when the document was written. Aside from an expert witness, a forensic scientist is ethically responsible for.

Ink , fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for writing and printing. It is composed of a pigment or dye dissolved or dispersed in a liquid called the vehicle. Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China. They consisted of lampblack ground with a solution of glue or gums, molded into sticks, and allowed to dry.

Before use, the sticks were mixed with water. Various coloured juices, extracts, and suspensions of substances from plants, animals, and minerals also have been used as inks, including alizarin, indigo, pokeberries, cochineal, and sepia. For many centuries, a mixture of a soluble iron salt with an extract of tannin was used as a writing ink and is the basis of modern blue-black inks.

The modern inks usually contain ferrous sulfate as the iron salt with a small amount of mineral organic acid. The resulting solution is light bluish black and, if used alone on paper, appears only faintly. After standing it becomes darker and insoluble in water, which gives it a permanent quality. To make the writing darker and more legible at the outset, dyes are added.

forged document identification by ink aging technique

Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age.

NILS KREUGER, indian ink on paper, signed NKrgr and inscribed n:o Later date in pencil. “Bland franska bönder af August Strindberg” (Among.

But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.

Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components.

When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed. After observing this natural evolution and once the base guideline had been established, the next challenge to be overcome was to check the viability of the method using spontaneously written documents whose exact age was known, such as diaries, laboratory logs and judicial evidence from judicial processes that had been closed.

So the team used the same procedure as that used to analyse the samples produced for the research. And Datink also passed the test. In other words, when applying this analysis procedure, the team can indicate whether the document was written 1, days previously just over four years with a margin of days either way.

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